Sinusitis is caused by many risk factors, such as smoking, colds, age, allergens, and air pollutants. Mortality from chronic respiratory diseases has increased from 1990 to 2017; this change is closely correlated with industrialization and urbanization, which are social changes that have resulted in outdoor and indoor air pollution. According to the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, the most common and hazardous air pollutants are particulate matter (PM), ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide. In particular, PM contributes to several major diseases, such as cardiovascular and circulatory diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and cancer.